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Another point to be remembered is that when Constantine, apparently conceiving ours, as the only non-national religion with ramifications throughout his world-wide dominions, to be the only one that could weld together the many nations which acknowledged his sway, established Christianity as the State Religion of the Roman Empire, the Church to which we belong would naturally have had to accept as its own the symbols which Constantine had caused to be those of the State in question.

And it should be added that the cross of later days with one of its arms longer than the others, if not also the assumption that the stauros to which Jesus was affixed had a cross-bar, may have been merely the outcome of a wish to associate with the story of Jesus these Gaulish symbols of victory which had become symbols of the Roman State, and therefore of its State Church.

Both words[stauros, xylon]disagree with the modern idea of a cross, with which we have become familiarized by pictures.

But I think "torture" is too much and misses the point: it is meant to be a form of execution and not torture."Used here[cross] for the stauros on which Jesus was crucified.

Even the Latin word crux means a mere stake." cause-STAND, crucify, drive a stake into the ground, fasten on a stake, impale, now by popular usage, crucify, though there was no crosspiece."- pp.

The stauros was simply an upright pale or stake to which the Romans nailed those who were thus said to be crucified. It never means two pieces of wood joining each other at any angle.

The level of the lake was evidently lower than previously thought, "and el-Araj most certainly was not under water in the Roman period," they state. If you would like to be notified when your comment is published, please fill in your email address in the form below.

It is the implement on which Jesus Christ was afixed and executed. the churches had either departed from, or had travestied, certain doctrines of the Christian faith. says about crucifixion: "The act of nailing or binding a living victim or sometimes a dead person to a cross or stake(stauros or skolops) or a tree(xylon)...

The writer, referring to Jesus, alludes to "That sophist of theirs who was fastened to a skolops;" which word signified a single piece of wood, and not two pieces joined together.The stauros used as an instrument of execution was (1)a small pointed pole or stake used for thrusting through the body, so as to pin the latter to the earth, or otherwise render death inevitable; (2)a similar pole or stake fixed in the ground point upwards, upon which the condemned one was forced down till incapable of escaping; (3)a much longer and stouter pole or stake fixed point upwards, upon which the victim, with his hands tied behind him, was lodged in such a way that the point should enter his breast and the weight of the body cause every movement to hasten the end; and (4)a stout un-pointed pole or stake set upright in the earth, from which the victim was suspended by a rope round his wrists, which were first tied behind him so that the position might become an agonising one; or to which the doomed one was bound, or ,in the case of Jesus, nailed.That this last named kind of stauros, which was admittedly that to which Jesus was affixed, had in every case a cross-bar attached is untrue; that it had in most cases is unlikely; that it had in the case of Jesus, is unproven. It can be just a plain stake in the ground to which someone is nailed. The JW's are trying to shock Christians away from their devotion to the cross. They are right that STAUROS does not necessarily mean the cross form as Christianity has thought of it.

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