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Penetration resistance of grapevine against the non-adapted PM species E.

cichoracearum was shown to be compromised by the actin cytoskeleton inhibitor cytochalasin.

From the lower surface of the appressorium, a penetration peg emerges which penetrates the cell wall and invades the host epidermal cell to form a specialized intracellular structure called a haustorium.

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This review will outline the strategies being used to increase our understanding of the molecular basis of V. It will summarize our current knowledge of different resistance loci/genes that have evolved in wild grapevine species to restrict PM infection and assess the potential application of these defense genes in the generation of PM-resistant grapevine germplasm.

Indeed, a report on the use of fungicides in the European Union over the period 2001–2003 indicated that while viticulture only accounted for 3.3% of the agricultural area, a staggering 81,000 tonnes of active substance were applied annually to grapevines in European vineyards, which represented 67% of all fungicides applied to crops in the EU, as well as increased carbon emissions generated from their frequent application. Instead, readers are directed to an excellent review published by Gadoury et al.

Thus, the integration of effective genetic resistance into grape cultivars would reduce the dependence of viticulture on chemical inputs, leading to significant financial, health, and environmental benefits. However, a brief description of the infection process is presented here in order to understand the resistance strategies used by the grapevine host to restrict fungal invasion and colonization.

Few horticultural crops have had more historical, cultural, and social impacts than grapevine. aestivalis are more resistant to PM than European V. As early as the late 1800s, grape breeders began introgressing genetic resistance from the North American Vitis spp. vinifera, resulting in the generation of many Vitis interspecific ‘French–American’ hybrids.

Grapevines are estimated to be cultivated on over 7.6 million of hectares of land worldwide. However, commercial adoption of these new grape cultivars has been limited, due to the reduced quality of wine made from these resistant hybrids.

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